The Human Achievement and Development in Technology Called Computer

The Human Achievement and Development in Technology Called Computer

The Human Achievement and Development in Technology

Called Computer

 

Development of modern technology in the terminology of equipment called the computer. A computer is a piece of device that has been developed and evolved since the first generation of it. Not only with the size of the equipment itself, which will be call hardware, but the evolution of computers also happened in the side of the network and the software itself.

 

The first model that gave inspiration to current modern technology is the abacus. A simple model of calculation machine that has been used since thousands of years ago in Asia, and remains being used by some countries around the world. A model of the abacus can be seen in the cover image above. It’s in a model that forms by kind of tokens in the column of tokens and line of tokens, that can be moved up and down. This abacus can do a simple calculation.

 

Based on a history of human in technology that has been recorded, then by the year of 1642, in which is mid of 17th century, then a geared numeric calculator in which called Pascaline since it’s been designed by Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) at the age of 18 years old. The Pascaline was designed to help his father on calculating the taxes.

 

Pascaline is a box made out of brass with nearly eight gears to calculate a set of numbers to up to 8 collections of digits. Then in the year 1694, Pascaline having an update and development in its function by a Mathematician Germanian named Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716). 

 

With the development in Pascaline, now the device not only can do an addition, and subtraction of multiple numbers but also through repetition of those additions and subtraction we can do multiplication and division as you can see in the video that you can find in the reference section of this article.

 

Then in the year 1820, a new model of simple mechanic calculation device called Arithmometer, designed by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar does exist. This device has much more efficiency by able to do the basic operation of mathematics than Pascaline.

 

Since the development of the calculator device, this has inspired many scientists at that time by developing it more, which will become a First Computer Generation era. The first computer generation in this moment of time design for doing some specific detail of work in a form of code, which is binary code, and in current modern technology been called as a computer language, or in that era was identified as machine language. This first computer generation has a seriously volumizing compare to the later generation of the computer with especially the current 21st-century technology generation, the seriousness in size because of in this first computer generation era, the technology at that time was using tube vacuum and magnetic cylinder as the media on storing information.

 

The First Computer Generation era started during World War Two. By that moment, each of the countries that are in the wars developing a technology called a computer to make their information during the war become efficient and effective. For example like in 1941 based on the recorded human history of technology, an engineer German named Konrad Zuse designed the First Computer generation called Z3, with the purpose of accuracy in aerodynamic calculation.

 

In the meantime, within the year 1943, English also designing a computer technology called Colossus Computer to decipher the Lorentz-encrypted messages called Tunny, a message that delivers among Hitler and the general during World War Two.

 

In some other years, the US also succeed in the development of computer technology that’s like an electronic calculator called IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator or Mark I. The machine was developed by Howard H. Aiken (1900 - 1973) under cooperation with IBM. The size of the machine itself quite massive, by means like a length of the machine itself like half of soccer ball fields. 

 

Another computer technology development in this first computer generation era called Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), developed by the US and University of Pennsylvania, and designed by John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) and John W. Mauchly (1907-1980). This type of computer has about 18,000 tube vacuum, 70,000 resistors, and many more. The size is quite big with a consuming power of about 160 kW. This computer capable of doing work that hundreds of times much faster than Mark I

 

Still in the era of World War Two in which become the First Computer Generation era, then in the year of 1945, designed by John von Neumann (1903-1957) with a team from the University of Pennsylvania created Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) with a system memory that would manipulate the data (British Encyclopedia). And by the year of 1951, designed by Remington Rand to created Universal Automatic Computer I (UNIVAC I), and this becomes the first commercial non-military computer.

 

With the long end of World War Two and the more development of the commercial nonmilitary computer, this led us to a new generation of a computer at that time, called the Second Computer Generation. Based on the recorded history of human technology, the era of the Second Computer Generation begins around the 1960s. One of the predecessors of this era computer is IBM 1401 that has been used for office works.

 

In this era, not only the computer hardware get development, but also happened in software development called computer language like Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL)Beginner All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC), Formula Translator (FORTRAN), etc. These types of computer language are quite friendly and applicable, comparing with the computer languages that exist during the First Computer Generation in which not only computer language also required machine language.

 

Still in this era, the software language got developed quite well, many new career and profession get to exist, especially related with the computer, also in this era that comes to a profession called as a programmer, analyst, and special computer engineer in the public, also replaced the what it called as a human-computer in the earlier.

 

With the development in the era of electronics, then this helped the more development in computer generation, in which called as Third Computer Generation. In this era, most of the computers are using the Integrated Circuit (IC) that’s been made by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce in 1958. This electronics invention has started a new era of computer generation in-purposely, also because of that invention then many scientists at that time developed a semi-conductor which we called a chip at this moment. With the efficiency in the hardware development in the form of electronics component also in this era, the software development got to expand to a multi-task skill, in this way the software development called as an operating system.

 

Also, with the invention of the IC, which started the new era of Third Computer Generation, that make a new purpose of making the Portable computer and to become more stable computer as well. Therefore, to fill that need the invention called Large Scale Integration (LSI) that capable to have a thousand transistors on it (Collin Dictionary). Around the 1980s, the LSI got more developed to become Very Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) that combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. Then VLSI got developed again to become Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI). This development in electronics component made computer generation also increased to a new era, called the Fourth Computer Generation, in this era the computer function in effectiveness and efficiency to do work has much more increment than in the previous generation, especially for the public the price become much more affordable. 

 

Around the year 1971, there is introduced a chip named Intel 4004 which capable to store most of the computer component, also introduce more classification of a computer hardware component, which called like Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory, input/output system, and many more in which led to the thanks for the discovery of microprocessor. This microprocessor invention surely gives a big impact on human society not only in the computer but also in household electronic appliances like television, microwave, even now some of the transportation like the car or a motorcycle using this microprocessor. Therefore, in this year, the user of computer not only to people at the office but the device got introduce also to a user at home in which included software in it like a word processing and spreadsheet software that commonly uses at that time.

 

Then, in the 1980s, the public or the community got introduce to a video game designed by ATARI, called ATARI 2600 as one of the digital entertainments at that time. Then in 1981, IBM introduced Personal Computer (PC) to a user in all indoor fields like home, office, and school. By that time, the use of PC become increase drastically, from 2 million users in 1981 to become 55 million users in 1982.

 

With the popularity of these users on the demand of computer technology, then the model and design of computer also need to be updated. For that purpose, the developer of computer technology introducing it to several kinds of models in the process, which like a tabletop model called a desktop computer, then a portable computer model called laptop or notebook, lastly a handheld computer model called palmtop or PocketPC. This type of the development of models of a computer also adjusted not only by the size from desktop to laptop to palmtop, which surely becomes simple and practical. But with this type of development, the model of a computer also develops properly in some of their classifications, like Super ComputerMainframeMini Computer, and Micro Computer (Desktop Computer, Laptop/Notebook, Palmtop/PocketPC). This popularity also not only happens in the computer but also in some other device that many of us can see in our current 21st-century technology such as a smartphone (a device that been mixed the function of palmtop and phone function) that introduce in 2003 by the Apple iPhone. Therefore, in this classification and models from the type of computer that currently exists, those type has helped many of us on our choice regarding our needs in the use of computer technology.

 

Besides, this fourth-generation computer is the era that we currently use to help most of our current digital works in this early 21st century, and till further development on the hardware device, or software, or network. The hardware that is slightly mentioned in the above paragraph also explained about our computer works, like the Central Processing Unit (CPU) or often called processor only, that has a duty on processing an instruction that’s been ordered to it. In short, the work of a computer can be explained by means as we typed by using the support device named keyboard, then the keyboard will send an electronic signal based on the order that we give to the keyboard. Then this signal get process by the processor, to convert become a piece of digital information that we can see in the display or monitor in the form of models of character that we have been ordered to the keyboard. As well as another support device like a mouse, a device that introduced by Apple Macintosh, to function by giving a click-through mouse then the mouse will sending a signal to the processor regarding the button that we have been choose and need to process, then the result for that action can be seen by us, the user, at the display or monitor. Another use also, we can make printing on what we have been typing, for this purpose the processor will be sent a signal to the support device that can help us to print the document or file that we have ordered it to print. All of this process can be processed in a very short moment, except your device are in some issue.

 

In the end, in this fourth computer generation era, we studied much more of their type, model, classification, and variant in the development of technology neither in the form of traditional technology till this modern technology in the form of hardware, software, and network, that will exclusively be discussed or written in later on as the Fifth Computer Generation, and by any other reason behind that development itself.

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Reference:

 

Belaval, Y., and Look,. Brandon C. (2021, January 14). Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Published by: Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Gottfried-Wilhelm-Leibniz [Accessed on Feb 28, 2021]

 

Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2016, February 15). Computer program. Published by: Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/technology/computer-program [Accessed on Feb 28, 2021]

 

Computing, The National Museum. Colossus, the world's first electronic computer, had a single purpose: to help decipher the Lorenz-encrypted (Tunny) messages between Hitler and his generals during World War II. Published by: The National Museum of Computing. Retrieved from: https://www.tnmoc.org/colossus [Accessed on Feb 28, 2021]

 

Computing, Mechanical (2012). How the Pascaline Works. Retrieved from [video]: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3h71HAJWnVU [Accessed on Feb 28, 2021]

 

Contributor, Tech Target (2005). Definition Integrated Circuit. Retrieved from: https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/integrated-circuit-IC [Accessed on Feb 28, 2021]

 

Cruz, Frank da. (2021, Jan 18). Programming the ENIAC. Published by: Columbia University Computing History. Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/computinghistory/eniac.html [Accessed on Feb 28, 2021]

 

Dictionary, Collins (2021). Large Scale Integration. Retrieved from: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/large-scale-integration [Accessed on Feb 28, 2021]

 

Freiberger, P. A. and Swaine., Michael R. (2020, May 27). ENIAC. Published by: Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/technology/ENIAC [Accessed on Feb 28, 2021]

 

Monnier, Valerie (2013). Arithmometer. Retrieved from: http://www.arithmometre.org/Biographie/PageBiographieEnglish.html [Accessed on Feb 28, 2021]

 

O’Regan G. (2018) EDVAC and ENIAC Computers. In: The Innovation in Computing Companion. Published by: Springer, Cham. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02619-6_23 [Accessed on Feb 28, 2021]

 

Point, Tutorials. (2021). VLSI Design – Digital System. Retrieved from: https://www.tutorialspoint.com/vlsi_design/vlsi_design_digital_system.htm [Accessed on Feb 28, 2021]

 

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Posted By: alberttls
Posted On: Mar-01-2021 @ 09:40am
Last Updated: Mar-21-2021 @ 12:45pm
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