### 01 - A Positive Classroom Environment is The Goals That Require Us, Educators, On Some Creativity While We Are Introducing Our Passion

Based on the concepts that were introduced in this reading assignment, which generally agrees with the 7 criteria as mentioned in CINI 2017. But, this general 7 criteria, in my categories, I can be classified into 2 major categories, in which 01) The basic part, as represented for a time, space and waves, which are scheduling, classroom designing, and communication. 02) The derive part, which is more like an action that mostly can be seen, analyze, and recorded, as we derive it from the basic part. Those derive part are like teaching techniques as we are deriving from communication and scheduling, organizing as we are deriving it from classroom designing and scheduling, rules as we are deriving from communication, classroom designing and scheduling, then discipline as we also deriving from communication, classroom designing, and scheduling.

This all begins back to the class of 2016-2018, I always like to bring my learners on seeing a concept that comes from the practically general idea of behaving to support their understanding and interest in the material. In the concept of the general idea, I will always involve the theory, application, experiments, and report. Within the practical general idea will be like, while you are seeing a non-moveable object in whatever form, we will know there is a mass of the object, a volume of the object, from this point we will know about the density since a density of the object defines as a mass of the object over the unit of volume.

In the first section, Theory, an idea about what they learn and what will be their learning objective about, in which to lead my students on where all began and how we see the things as Physicist. In the last paragraph, we see the example. And with that idea, I also can re-apply the concept throughout the application in the form of questions paper, and my students will be able to find the clue on which information will belong to which kind of quantity, like for a unit of the kilogram that will be representing quantity named mass, for a unit of meter cubic that will be representing of a quantity named volume, then from the two of them we can find quantity named density in which units is kilogram per unit volume. Now, with the same object, if the object making a movement, therefore an object will have a new location, in which this action quantity will be called a distance, in terms of a difference of final location with the initial location. Then as we know once the object moves, the movement will be related to a time frame, by means of how long the object needs to move from the initial location to the final location. Then once we know about the distance and time frame, based on our differences in the final and initial location, then we will be able to measure at what speed the object has moved, since the definition of the speed is the rate of the object moving in the one-time frame. That theory application got introduced in the early time of the classroom based on how we communicate with our students during the lesson.

With regard to the 2nd reading Assignment under the topic Classroom Management by Great School Partnership. It reminded me of a method in which after the theory-application that I always like to give them some experiments in which look similar to the example students had in the application during questions and answers. While my students were seeing action through that experiments and reminding them of their knowledge, then by the end of the lesson, I will know how many of them are totally understand the topic on how my students can demonstrate it throughout an experiment from the topic they just learned, with a perhaps they can realize about the data now becoming more depends on their observation and analytics skills. These beginner experiments will always have to be done in the laboratory and/or assignment location with starting from discussing the plan before they execute the plan in the laboratory and their discipline on following the safety rules.

The 3rd action of this classroom management will be about writing a report. I often ask my student to take their own notes, not based on copy and paste for what I have on the whiteboard, the idea of their own taking notes, will lead them on how they will be taking a research report that they conduct the experiment in the laboratory. With a friendly discipline approach in which not too strict but also not too lighten, we approach our students on how important is this by trusting them by asking what did you get during the experiment? Once my students are able to share with me what they found in their research then I will ask them on writing their reports in purpose to help them to be more understanding on how to deliver their message for their friends to read.

That connection only can be formed once I can have clear scheduling on which time will I have the class, how many classes in one week, how long does it take for me to introducing it smoothly in my teaching progress. In the meantime, the classroom designing will be giving us a space on a section of learners to see and comfortably seeing the demo that I demonstrate before I go to the next lesson, and later my students will be able to do their experiment or mimicking the experiments that they see in the class. Of course, among all of those rules, based on our communication skills, then how I will deliver a message about my class rules. Therefore, my learner will not have a feeling of strictness on the rule, but they do feel self-discipline on following those rules to a better engagement in their learning, and safety during their experimenting. This connectedness between the basic part and the fundamental part of classroom management will be helping each of us, teachers, students, and school administration on giving support to each other to a better learning environment.

Reference:

01. Great Schools Partnership (2014). Classroom management. Retrieved from: https://www.edglossary.org/classroom-management/ [Accessed Feb 4, 2021]

02. Kratochwill,T.R., DeRoos, R., & Blair, S. (n.d.). Classroom management: Teachers modules. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/education/k12/classroom-mgmt.aspx [Accessed Feb 4, 2021]

03. American Psychological Association. Top 20 Principles for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved from: https://www.apa.org/ed/schools/teaching-learning/top-twenty [Accessed Feb 4, 2021]

04. Choe, Yoonsun. Becoming a Positive Teacher. Retrieved from: http://www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol4/405-newvoices.aspx [Accessed Feb 4, 2021]

05. Joan, Young. Encouragement in The Classroom: The Importance of a Positive Classroom. Retrieved from: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/sf114049/chapters/The-Importance-of-a-Positive-Classroom.aspx [Accessed Feb 4, 2021]

### 02 - There Are Three Fundamental Elements as The Most Crucial of Classroom Management For a New Teacher Effectiveness

Based on research, reading, and experience. With an analogy of classroom management more like a game of chess. While we have to manage our time frame during the game, so we won't lose our game because of the time. Meantime we also have to design each position of our chess token therefore we won’t lose our game because our king always has a space. Lastly, the communication between those tokens builds a connection on protecting each other until the opponent king is unable to move anymore. Therefore, those are becoming three areas which are most important for maintaining classroom management, because these three areas in no particular order are most likely the fundamental tools of the classroom management, and the other tools are the derive tools from this fundamental tool under their development name.

Firstly, clear and clean on scheduling as represented for a time frame for each educator to be able to organize a plan efficiently. Having a clear time frame for our period of teaching enables us on having prepare and plan. A proper and organized lesson plan that can help most of us, a new teacher and an experienced teacher on what should we share effectively and efficiently during our short time period in the class teaching. The preparation material can help us in delivering our teaching to help our learners visualizing the content we were talking about. Even the Professor has to make and organize teaching notes for him or her before delivering the teaching content to their learners in the University. Also, scheduling will be helping new teachers with organizing assignments and homework. To better knowledge and understanding for our learners throughout the content that we shared during our short period of time in the class, therefore a proper homework that enabling learners on doing a review with a better understanding to not only passing their exam but to face any kind of assignment that learner will face in their progress of learning. Furthermore, once a new teacher has a clear schedule, they will be able to be organizing the assigned task clearly. For a learner to get the actual intuition on their progress of learning, then the process of passing an exam isn’t enough, but doing an actual experiment that’s practical can be useful, for this purpose than the task needs to be given after the proper content got accomplished or by organizing some event that can be related with what they learn. So, there are things in life that cannot get repeated, therefore would be better to have a clean and clear schedule for a new teacher on their preparation.

Another reason for helping the new teacher with effectiveness is the classroom designing in which represented a space during the progress of teaching and learning. For one thing, every space always giving us different kinds of vibe unto their ideas. Like online learning will only be giving them a similar space in terms of they don’t have to leave a building as long as they have an internet connection during their study, unlike online learning, the space we can have will also bring us into a different sight of view. Even a short walk from a classroom to a bathroom will help students to take fresh air, instead of staying a whole hour in front of the computer. Arrangement of the classroom could also lead to a better focus for a new teacher and learners. The learner will understand the topic easily since their point of view to the topic are clear, this also will help the learner easily to accept the knowledge behind the lesson due to the support from their environment. The comfort space will also be giving us more relaxation on accepting new things. Neither doing online or onsite, the system on arranging the classroom only for developing new teacher on sharing the idea through their environment and the students on receiving it. In addition, the use of space can effectively build a connection between a new teacher and learner. With the more opening area then they can see their teacher easily also this is convenient for their teacher to identify each of their learners. Here also will help the new teacher on applying strategies on teaching like visualization methods for the onsite, and technology development for the online platform. Therefore, the classroom designing, as representing of space, will be helping our new teachers on delivering the content properly to help their students on progress.

The other important component is the communications as one kind of tool on each of living things to help each other with a better understanding and knowledge. Each Educator has their own way of sharing a piece of information. Physics leaner will have a better understanding of their way of learning through the guidance of their teacher by practical learning. In the meantime, mathematics learners will have a better understanding to know how each equation gets from through enough evidence introduced to them during the lesson than just the plug-and-play method. On the other hand, real teaching is not only about passing the exam grade. Once their level reached the level of not just knowing about the topic but also understanding, then they will know the better way of reading to sharing those information surrounds them to people around them or research journal. For example, like in the MIT, the educator and the learners often discuss an idea that is nearly beyond the textbook on developing what they have known to clearance of their understanding with giving them a result for their own original research projects. This will also be helping new teachers and learners in building and maintaining healthy connections. Like the proverb in education ever exist by someone, “once you are being a teacher then your duty not only to guide the learner in the classroom but what is beyond it” in terms of our duty as a new teacher to be able to share an effective and efficient knowledge from a perspective of us into letting them make an adjustment on their learning due to ours genuinely of our specialist subject. Because there are different methods of communication, therefore a new teacher should be confident in their specialist to become an effective communicator neither in verbal, written, or visual.

Reference:

01. Harris, Alma. “Effective Classroom Management and Effective Classroom Time.” Teaching and Learning in the Effective School, 2019, pp. 53–63., doi:10.4324/9780429398117-6.

02. Scott, Terrance M. “Effective Teachers Provide Effective Instruction Teachers Use Effective Practices.” Teaching Behavior: Managing Classrooms Through Effective Instruction, pp. 9–22., doi:10.4135/9781506337883.n2.

### 03 - Ineffectiveness Discipline Methods and Methods to Consider on Improvement Positive Classroom Climate

A disciplined method was ineffective because the discipline method may not too much sense in this current state of education. in terms of the behavior of how our parents treat us back to the last 10 years have made a tremendous change. This behavior also makes many of the schools made some changes in discipline style. Like, if a school made a discipline style like in the military and if there is a school made a discipline style like in the living room, then with those two, the one with the style like in the living room will be more accepted by the current community, because that style more relaxing but also there is seriousness.

Based on the readings in Reference List, we can do honestly think about the changes that need to be made are all about how we deliver our messages and how we will react to our students by not scared them but more into guiding them. I think this is similar to what is suggested by Mather N. and Goldstein S. and the short version from five criteria from a positive discipline which is explained by Jane Nelsen. Like it was mentioned in https://www.positivediscipline.com/about-positive-discipline, there are five criteria for positive discipline, especially with the point no:

02. In terms of connection, then Helps children feel a sense of Belonging and Significance

04. in terms of Respect, Empathy, Problem-solving, Accountability, Contribution, Cooperation, then Teaches valuable Social and Life Skills for good character.

05. Invites children to discover how capable they are and to use their personal power in constructive ways

Those are on how can we can guide the today child on exposed their talent, and skills, with also showing them through our teaching and their sense of belonging and significance, with the order on lead to thinking and logical skills into a situation, in which also supported by https://www.kaganonline.com/free_articles/dr_spencer_kagan/ASK15.php about seven positions on win-win discipline.

We do believe, in each of our skills and ability as a teacher, that we are superbly master in such a subject to help our students on learning. Therefore, instead of asking our children on memorizing the knowledge that we know, we may better on guiding them to expose their talents and how it can be helpful to the community, with this way, the students, which often called as a child, will always try to mimic our way. Our way in terms like we taught them throughout our subject.

Perhaps an example like how many of us did in our Physics class, instead of guiding the student throughout the textbook, we will be asking our students for doing some practical experiment that will be leading them into learning itself. The thing we did by bringing them to the soccer field in pursuit of learning about the physical change that we can analyze, and through that experiment, we guide them on what would mean as which introduced to the purpose of the learning itself. Also, we will be able to guide the students not only on learning one thing, but they will see how we as a teacher can see the thing around us as our own passion throughout the subject we teach.

Reference:

01. Kagan, Spencer. What is Win-Win Discipline. Retrieved from https://www.kaganonline.com/free_articles/dr_spencer_kagan/ASK15.php [Accessed on Feb 4,2021]

02. Nelsen, Jane. Five Criteria for Positive Discipline (n.d.). [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.positivediscipline.com/about-positive-discipline [Accessed on Feb 4, 2021]

### 04 - Creative Discipline on Teaching and Learning is The Models That Helped Educators and Learners on Sharing and Accepting the Knowledge

Discipline, as the action from communication, therefore without an idea about the meaning of it, discipline can become a type of word that contains self-defense. Once we heard the word of discipline, then the first thing first comes will be a punishment or reward. Those are based on our act or our behavior throughout our environment either in the learning or working, we will able to become a teacher that possesses tremendous power to make children’s miserable or joyous (Haim Ginott, 2017), instead of to be a teacher that wants to work hand-in-hand with our students (Linda Albert, 1996). Then after doing more reading based on reading assignments and some educational journal sources, we know now, discipline is action or inaction (Wikipedia, 2021). Education is not only responsible for delivering to understanding and knowing of subject material, but educations are also responsible for helping the meaning and true behavior towards learning. Therefore, it’s important that education can have something that effective in the long-term life lessons (Jane Nelsen, 2017), also teach learners on valuable and social life skills (Jane Nelsen, 2017). Furthermore, if discipline can be communicating properly and wisely, then learners will humbly accept it. Adding more pressure without communicating it in proper and wise ways makes it likely that educational discipline will be hurting the true purpose of learning and education. But, through action and inaction like being strict for undesirable behavior and permissive through a feeling (Haim Ginott, 2012, Communicating With Children) then our learner can be more cooperative (Delisio, 2008, Practicing Love and Logic). It would be better to be flexible and creative in our shared real-life application on delivering the model of discipline to our learners.

Also, like the waves that shown a limitation, this tells me there is always a challenge in the process of applying this creative discipline that helped educators and learners. For one thing, we should not be bound by that limitation but challenge it will be like once we ride the wave like a surfer. In the journey of my teaching, since 2006, the first challenge that I faced which is once I move to China in 2012 to expand my teaching challenge, the challenge by the changeable schedule in some sort of periodically that you have never seen anywhere, for some unreasonable reason this happened in most of the public school in China. In order for me to ride the wave like a surfer then my readjustment just to concentrate during the number of class time for each week in which not changing while the school tries to always be scheduling our timetable. Also, the challenge in creative discipline sometimes can be like the visible light of waves. Like it mentioned in Positive Discipline by Jane Nelsen,” invites children to discover how capable they are and use their power constructively”, by means, once I know about what my students desire and passion to do, then I will do my best on communicating the acceptable connection on their passions and the thing that they supposed to learn in the subject, therefore my learners will also enjoying it and understanding it, by helping them with the feeling of the connection (Jane Nelsen, 2017) in which also kind and firm (Jane Nelsen, 2017). On other hand, once I treat this challenge carefully, they are neither the less only three types of waves, trigonometry sin/cos/tan types of waves. As it been mentioned and indirectly written about students won’t always remember what the teacher teach them, but they will never forget how the teacher treats them (Linda Albert, 1996), therefore to let my students educated also doesn’t stop them from exploring their passions, then I as their teacher just have to identify the reason and share it throughout their passions (Marshall, M., 2017, How to Discipline Without Stress) by mean I can start it by my point of view, my student point of view and experience, or the connection course point of view. It is fun to be creative discipline by expanding our point of view with a better on sharing for my students in the pursuit of their acceptance toward learning.

Finally, the professionalism of me as an educator to keep on applying this creative discipline, in my teaching practices on helping my student to grow. As Mathematical Physicist, I value the idea with reasoning and experiments. In terms of creative discipline discussion in which I do and tried to deliver to my students for them to find the fun through the connection that I build in our journey of learning, as one of the great teachers ever said if you can’t explain something in the simple term, you don’t understand it (Richard Feynman, 1996). The way that I have delivered on reasoning and experiment has led to a growing passion from one of my students from Indonesia that I taught in 2007 to become one of the recognizable chefs under the name Prince of Pastry in Indonesia (Ardika Dwitama, 2019), in which he was put in the challenging class at that time he learned in the school. On the other hand, not all educational institutes can accept this creative discipline model towards learning. In Singapore in 2008, for example, while I was teaching by keep changing the models of discipline according to the lesson, then my principal will come to my classroom each week for a month to monitor me, with the result that is telling me to be consistent on my models of discipline with the reason if I always change my discipline models then my students will be confused about following the lesson. It’s quite self-reflection that I need from each challenge once I got treated. And, many times, it may be challenging to allocate so many resources for one student, but the ultimate goal is to help my students learn and helping his/her behavior towards learning. (Hannigans, 2016). In conclusion, even though there is a challenge on me to distributing this method of creative discipline in order for my students on sharing and accepting the knowledge, but as a dedicated professional educator, then I should always know about learning is not about memorizing, teaching is not about ordering, and discipline is not about punishment or rewards, but all of them are the waves that been created to help on the application of creative discipline in positive classroom management.

Reference:

01. Baker, K., McCallum, K., McGibbon, M., Stevens, N., & Zirpolo, J. (n.d.). Cooperative discipline model Linda Albert. Retrieved from: https://vrogersmanagementprofile.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/8/3/13836263/linda_albert_summary_3_pages.pdf [Accessed on Feb 10, 2021]

02. Delisio, E.R. (2008). Practicing Love & Logic can mean happier schools. Retrieved from: http://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/admin/admin536.shtml [Accessed on Feb 10, 2021]

03. Goodstein, D., & Goodstein, Judith R. (1996). Feynman’s Lost Lecture The Motion of Planets Around the Sun. Retrieved from: http://calteches.library.caltech.edu/563/2/Goodstein.pdf [Accessed on Feb 11, 2021]

04. Hannigan, Jessica, & Hannigan, John. (2016). Comparison of Traditional and Innovative Discipline Beliefs in Administrators. Retrieved from: https://journals.sfu.ca/cvj/index.php/cvj/article/viewFile/23/26 [Accessed on Feb 11, 2021]

05. Hein, S. (n.d.). Notes from Haim Ginott's books. Retrieved from: https://eqi.org/ginott.htm [Accessed on Feb 10, 2021]

06. Marshall, M. (2017). How to discipline without stress, punishment, or rewards. Retrieved from: https://www.thoughtco.com/discipline-without-stress-punishment-or-rewards-3110686 [Accessed on Feb 8, 2021]

07. Nelsen, J., & Gfroer, K. (2017). Positive discipline tools for teachers: Effective classroom management for social, emotional, and academic success. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.id/books?id=GgEQDQAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=positive+discipline&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=positive%20discipline&f=false [Accessed on Feb 8, 2021]

08. Radio, Janson R. (2019). Prince of Pastry Ardika Dwitama. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=-yd6OvlZ93M&fbclid=IwAR0xuIsi7c25iAFeyJ2F9sZnhpoaEqYeSGw18lDPoOzLPFfTiWqvMcEulXw [Accessed on Feb 10, 2021]

09. Wikipedia (2021). Discipline. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discipline#:~:text=Discipline%20is%20action%20or%20inaction,society%20or%20environment%20it%20belongs. [Accessed on Feb 17, 2021]

### 05 - Educational Positive Discipline Theorist and Models as Sample of Derive Form from Communication of Classroom Management

There are many methods of discipline that we can do and fit with our educational method. Every educator in every specific subject and level has their methods. Also, since discipline is a derived form from the communication of classroom management, therefore, discipline is a method for learning to communicate. Furthermore, if discipline doesn’t apply, the learning won’t be at Maximum. It would be better if a school know the models of discipline.

Therefore, comes to discipline, a teacher should know about the positive discipline model. The model, that every teacher may have been used on guiding, called as Guiding Method. Educators will help learners on developing their critical thinking. Instead of saying yes and/or no, Educators through guiding methods will let learners go into their situation by a firm and kind then Educator will help learners on creating an option to let learners choose. As an example, that can be found in the video of Haim Ginott’s talk about communicating with children, he does say, “in a third way, he looked on a child and a child say a child wants seven ice cream, and Ginott’s say you want seven ice cream, and you wish you had a whole 28 flavor, but then you can only have two, but you the children can choose which do you want?”. But there is another method, that helps to inspire learners will be called as intervening Method. As it been mentioned by Marshall M., on How to Discipline without Stress, Punishment, or Rewards, and I quoted it now, “Great teachers identify the reason that a lesson is being taught and then share it with their students. These teachers inspire their students through curiosity, challenge, and relevancy. In which, the educator will help their learner on increased their eagerness to learning through more development than just choices. As an example, here for our high schooler students who studied properly at the high school level will feel their hungry of learning to figure out more about their specific of learning, which this hunger lead them on their pursuit of learning at the college level with specific major of their choices. Even though discipline won’t eliminate the problem, but through discipline, we can build positive behavior.

On the other hand, comes to applied discipline, those methods also have a weakness. Each educator has their waves on guiding, as the waves got form either in the trigonometry sin, cos, or tan direction. Like we can see in Ginott's notes in Sever Roads to Trouble, it’s said,” Everything happens for the best. If you miss one bus there will soon be another, perhaps a less crowded one. If you didn't get one job, you'll get another-perhaps even a better one.” In which adaptation like,” There is a reason for everything. Everything is just the way it should be. I guess it just wasn't written. It is not our place to question things like this. We just need to move past it and have faith that things will work out. Now, don't give it a second thought.” There is a reason for each of those trigonometry functions to existing, as well as our thought. On the other hand, an Educator has its space to inspire into a scope of volume in derivative function. As the limit trying to approach into a level that can be accepted, the volume of an object has it shown from a model of the area. In the meaning as much as educators want to inspire the learner on their pursuit of learning, Marshal M also mentioned, “unfortunately today's educational establishment still has a 20th-century mindset that focuses on EXTERNAL APPROACHES to increase motivation. An example of the fallacy of this approach is the defunct self-esteem movement that used external approaches such as stickers and praise in attempts to make people happy and feel good” in terms of reality like many learners now just care about what score they get instead of what have I learned, and I can contribute to our community. It would be better for each educator to be able to minimalize the long-term effect of these weaknesses throughout the communication way.

Lastly, in the comes to teaching, our education teams will need our best to discipline our learners. Discipline methods as one derive from communication in classroom management. Like it has been mentioned by Nelsen, J., & Gfroer, K. (2017) in Positive discipline tools for teachers: Effective classroom management for social, emotional, and academic success, there are five criteria on positive discipline, in which as an educator we could use our creativity on using it. It won’t be embarrassing if we can’t use five criteria in one action. As Educator our creativity in communicating to build positive discipline effort will be rewarded. Especially to help our learners. In local Chinese High Schools, for example, learners are taught to help each other and memorizing, but in the international program of local Chinese High School, learners will do their best on helping their friends at the local department as a sense of their connection, with this way as their educator or teacher we can be happy on how well our learners on discover their hidden talent on sharing their knowledge and to use their power constructively not only within their social community in the school within their foreign teacher but also within their friends in the local department. It is helpful for the Educator on being creative to use the discipline method to develop a better learner community.

In conclusion, we now know on each learner is not an object, and each educator is not a subject. Therefore, there are no other models that can be satisfied each individual except we can teach them the joy of our specialty with leading to discover their capability and to use it constructively like Nelsen J. ever mentioned, also as mentioned by Linda Albert,” Students won’t always remember what we teach them, but they will never forget how we treat them”.

Reference:

01. Ginott, Haim. posted September 17, 2012. Haim Ginott 7: Ginott talks about communicating with children. YouTube. [Video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/sMo80A_AAEw [Accessed on February 8, 2021]

02. Marshall, M. (2017). How to discipline without stress, punishment, or rewards. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/discipline-without-stress-punishment-or-rewards-3110686 [Accessed on February 5, 2021]

03. Nelsen, Jane. Five Criteria for Positive Discipline (n.d.). [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.positivediscipline.com/about-positive-discipline [Accessed on February 6, 2021]

04. Nelsen, J., & Gfroer, K. (2017). Positive discipline tools for teachers: Effective classroom management for social, emotional, and academic success. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.id/books?id=GgEQDQAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=positive+discipline&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=positive%20discipline&f=false [Accessed on February 5, 2021]

### 06 - Simplest Rules and Flexible Procedure on Supporting Classroom Management

The first thing to be realized on developing the creative discipline models then we need to simplify the rules of a classroom by flexing the procedure unto it. Rules and discipline are two best friends that need to be clarifying their differences. Therefore, the importance of communication is and always be the key to success (Patricia Kaliska, 2002), especially on the very first day of teaching-learning on discussing those. Like, I have written in my reflection about discipline, in which discipline is action or inaction (Wikipedia, 2021), we found that sharing the lead on the known or unknown about my classroom rules should become like a friendly manual guide that helping us to go on smoothly in our life to live during the learning process, moreover with the connection to the wide school rules in which much concern to the effectiveness of a classroom, so the rules that can be observed, measure, have positively stated, be understandable, and be always applicable (Missouri School, 2016). In contrast to working hand-in-hand with our students (Linda Alber, 1996). Also, a classroom is a place for dual conversation. Even in the 21st century is not rare that in my journey of teaching-learning, I still can find a classroom that is not mine that constantly quiet because the students are being controlled through fear, intimidation, frequent appeals to competition, and public embarrassment (Barbara McEwan, Butchart, Ronald E., 1997), in which that contradict with the idea of learning itself where learning should be made where students dare to explain and defend their ideas (Jessica E. Rosevear, 2009), in order as a teacher that can help students on reaching their potential in either personally and/or academically (Harry and Rosemary Wong, 2014). So, to build this dual conversation, then students are involved to share their opinion and understanding in which teacher provides information about teaching rules, and encouraging their use (Missouri School, 2016). Furthermore, if rules can be in synergy with discipline, then the procedure of doing it will become natural. By simple rules and discussing it with a student in a real application way makes it likely that those rules as a living style since those rules are synergy with discipline and importantly those simplifying rules should be like being strict for undesirable behavior and permissive through a feeling (Haim Ginott, 2012). It would be better the smoothness and clearance on simple rules, creative discipline, and flexible procedure as one natural module that being apply without pressure to do it on our learners doing their learning.

Along with that, as much as we can see the size of space then we designed that standardization to become comfortable teaching-learning under the measurable time frame, and this leads me to simplification on designed my classroom rules. The simple rules but memorable and expandable with sense. In which, since 2008, a year after we begin my teaching career, we always like to make an illustration of the connection of these rules, discipline, and procedure by the game of international chess, in which many chess players have known about the rules on that game, only how each chess tokens make their movement on 8 times 8 squared board size, with the mission on making the opponent king being stayed still under monitored of our tokens under possibly a time of frame we have during the game but without forgetting to have fun as well. Now, from the illustration of the game of international chess for me to design the simplest rule in my classroom size then that rules should be as reachable as shown in the game of chess, have a consistent discipline, flexible procedure, and with fun in engagement. Also, with nothing much more simples than as many as 5 among groups of numbers, which indicate a total finger in most of one palm on a human hand. This inspired me on creating classroom rules that have been applied since 2008, in which the designed of my classroom rules based on my reflection on the game of international chess, and somehow in our reading we realize the rules that we have been using, it, it does fit with OMPUA Guidelines (Missouri School, 2016). These rules are:

1. Ask and Answers. Like in the game of international chess, each time one player making the move on the board, then the opponent player will also make their move and vice versa till the game comes to an end. Therefore, in my class during teaching-learning, there is a requirement for each student to send me an email once a week of their question and/or answering a question based on their doubt and analysis during teaching-learning, as been said by the great teacher we need to teach how doubt is not to be feared but welcomed (Richard P. Feynmann, 1988).

2. Time frame. Also, like in the game of international chess, in which each player has their clock on making their decision to moving their token on the board in regard responding to opponent movement, then it also has a time of frame once I handout the question or once student have to handout their question with the timely manner by writing when they responded to it and when did I send it to them, regarding on answering it periodically.

3. The Dot ( . ). It’s a dot, a point that indicates a sentence has been finished. In which a point where myself and my student need to reflect each other from what both of us has been doing and how can I able to develop to be better on helping them and how can my student able to responses positively in action regarding their learning.

4. Lifely live. Again, like in the game of international chess, on how each token does like building connections in those moments of the life of those tokens. Therefore, in process of my teaching and learning, not only about me on delivering the content in lively properly but I should also know about my student need to have their life to live in which lead them to know how synergy is their life to live with what they are learning in fun.

5. System of Self. Lastly, to illustrate from the game of international chess again, whenever we decide on our token to filing each square, that’s will always be reflecting our own decision, there are no other players who will influence you on making those moves, also even though each token have their unique movement but there is a connection. In addition to this, my student learning and I on teaching should be better of ourselves, in either they formed as a self-reflection or self-less, but my student does their learning not because they followed the order of parents or teacher say so, but because their self-understanding on learning, as well as me on delivering the material with the purpose of their learning, should be approachable and be flexible on the application as connecting one to another in myself and my students way to live, as been said everyone is entitled to his own opinion but not to his fact (Daniel Patrick Moynihan, 2003).

In short, the rules are often called AT.LS with a dot, a shortened name of myself. As well as that, related to the OMPUA Guidelines (Missouri School, 2016), without a doubt the rules that I have designed based on my inspiration throughout the game of international chess, those rules are observable as how I can observe and measure how my student making a question for me and answering my question by a certain amount of time that I have given to them during the process, this rules also giving a positive thought on the benefit of their analyzing, this rules also helping my students to know when to stop, to being self on their progress but also cooperate each other. To be noted, as in the reading, the ultimate goal of teaching is not enforcing rules and routines but teaching effectively (Rebecca Alber, 2017). It surely worthen to discuss these rules and let students bluntly involve in the discussion to blow their engagement and their self-efficiency (Missouri School, 2016) with the lead of being flexible on a procedure to do it in the classroom, as well as we being flexible on moving our tokens on the chessboard.

To summarize, the seriousness of rules in a light way and memoizable without being memorizing it. The game rules should be recognizable by most learners. For example, while I was in China, the most common game will be Chinese Chess instead of International Chess, so I need to use the Chinese Chess on the table to be illustrating the rules of my classroom to them. It’s very disrespectful on introducing the illustration of classroom rules without the known unknown what will be the most common thing in their life. Above all of that, an application of this rule to the subject that will be taught is necessary. The example, in my mathematics learning, the main rules of mathematics will be BEDMAS (Bracket, Exponent, Division-Multiplication, Addition-Subtraction) Guidelines, with numbers as a form of mathematical language and basic operation as tools (Wikipedia, 2021), then I like to take it from Dr. Taneja, as a specialist in number, that show us about the flexibility procedure on using the rules to reaching the same final value:

5 +{ [ (5 + 5)^(5 – (5/5)) + 55 ] / 5 } + 5

or

1+2*[3^4*(5+6)+7*(8+9)]

In those examples, my student and I can learn about we can always reach our purpose without worry the order of rules, in the idea of mathematics learning also taught us about either by singularity number or by combination number, the value can be approached as long as the rules can be applied properly. Which lead to one of my students from Indonesia in 2007 that now Has the habit to ask "WHY?" to any practices to find purpose in any tasks and come out with best practice that is both effective and efficient (Christopher Anthony). In the end, the introduction and demonstration with reminding of rules always need to be shown in the process of learning, like how I share the process on each equation can be formed and how it connected with the flexibility on procedures to run the rules.

Reference:

01 - Anthonny, C (2012). Strategic Marketing and Creative Manager. Retrieved from: https://www.linkedin.com/in/christopheranthonny/ [Accessed on Feb 16, 2021]

02 - Baker, K., McCallum, K., McGibbon, M., Stevens, N., & Zirpolo, J. (n.d.). Cooperative discipline model Linda Albert. Retrieved from https://vrogersmanagementprofile.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/8/3/13836263/linda_albert_summary_3_pages.pdf [Accessed on Feb 10, 2021]

03 - Feynmann, R. P (1988). The Role of Doubt in Science. Retrieved from: https://www.vantrumpreport.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/VAN-TRUMP-REPORT-03-08-18.pdf [Accessed on Feb 16, 2021]

04 - Ginott, H. (2012). Communicating with Children. [Video] Retrieved from: https://youtu.be/sMo80A_AAEw [Accessed on Feb 10, 2021]

Inder J. Taneja, 21 Mathematical Highlights for 2021, December 26, 2020. Pp.1-75, http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4394408 [Accessed on Feb 16, 2021]

05 - Kaliska, Patricia (2002). A Comprehensive Study Identifying The Most Effective Classroom Management Techniques and Practices. Published by: The Graduate School University of Wisconsin-Scout.

06 - McEwan, Barbara., and Butchart, Ronald E. Classroom Discipline in American Schools: Problems and Possibilities for Democratic Education. By State University of New York Press Publisher (1997)

07 - Missouri School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (2016). Classroom procedure and routines content acquisition video. Retrieved from http://pbismissouri.org/classroom-procedures-and-routines-content-acquisition-video/ [Accessed on Feb 16, 2021]

08 - Missouri School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (2016). Content acquisition podcast: Classroom rules and expectations. Retrieved from http://pbismissouri.org/content-acquisition-podcast-classroom-rules-and-expectations/ [Accessed on Feb 16, 2021]

09 - Moynihan, D.P. (2010). An American Original. Retrieved from: https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2010/11/moynihan-letters-201011 [Accessed on Feb 16, 2021]

10 - Rosevear, J. E. (2009). First month: classroom rules that work. Instructor [1990], 119(1), 57. Retrieved from: https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A207360942/AONE?u=lirn17237&sid=AONE&xid=ed7b9a4f [Accessed on February 16, 2021]

11 - Wikipedia (2021). Discipline. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discipline#:~:text=Discipline%20is%20action%20or%20inaction,society%20or%20environment%20it%20belongs. [Accessed on Feb 17, 2021]

12 - Wong, H.K. (2014). Proceed with intent: At the heart of a classroom management plan is practice and more practice of key procedures. Published by: Scholastic Instructor, 124 (3), page 32+. [Accessed on Feb 16, 2021]

### 07 - Rules and Procedures on Classroom Management Should be Approachable and Synergy

In the beginning on each teaching and learning educator and learner should learn the standardization. Educators and learners should not just know about standardization but understand standardization. Standardization is in the form of anything that we want to call, like rules and procedures on classroom management. Even the simplest thing has rules and procedures to help us to understand how it will play. Also, standardization should help the teaching-learning progress. Educators are not only responsible for delivering the message about their passionate subject material, but they are also responsible for helping learners how to be acceptably positive people. Therefore, educators must help with understanding the life lessons in form of dependable systems between rules and procedure (Missouri School, 2016) because learners spend most of their day in the educational institute. To do so, a clear systematic introduction about rules and procedures with tolerance for learners should be introduced, because as all of us know about if this is a rule then there are consequences (Rebecca Alber, 2017), also educators know a person who never made a mistake, never tried anything new (Albert Einstein), means if a learner has made some “mistake” then educator should approach learner privately (Jessica E. Rosevear, 2009) on helping each other with a better level of understanding, especially learning will be much more valuable when learners have an opportunity to explains and defends their idea (Jessica E. Rosevear, 2009). Furthermore, if educators and learners understand it then they will build a practically synergy learning environment in harmony. Punishing leaner without helping them with appropriate lessons makes it likely that learners get a license to redo their misunderstanding of rules and procedures. As we realize on learner do learning because they want to understand, our learners may have developed non-acceptable behavior and have not learned any other way of getting by, therefore our duty as an educator to help learner on reaching their potential personally and academically (Harry and Rosemary Wong) in a positive and wisely way. It would be better to introduce this standardization properly and passionately on the very first day of school as it becomes the most important day of the school year (Ronald L. Partin, 2009), after all the first impression on being approachable and shareable is the lead to our communication on a positive classroom environment.

On the other hand, from the variants of system standardizations, educators should simplify it but challenge in the form of encouragement in the classroom. The system types of rules on classroom management should be easy to approach. To approach, then educators and learners need to discuss appropriately this rule and the differences with a mission to void the misconnection on the message that educator sending it while learner receiving it (Barbara McEwan), and being able to make a simple direction and noted in structuring the rules and procedures itself (Wong H., Wong R., Rogers K., Brooks A.), in which also the rules to become effective for educator and learner then the rule has to be observable by eyes or ears, it can be measurable, it positively stated, easy to understand, and applicable, this method also calls as OMPUA Guidelines (Missouri School, 2016). For example, in Mathematics learning, once we know about Mathematics is not about problem-solving, but the study of the idea (Wikipedia, 2020), then the rules of Math will be very easy and flexible to approach, in which the BEDMAS rules (Brackets, Exponent, Division, Multiplication, Addition, and Subtraction), and we proceed some calculations based on the basic operation as our tools, with numbers as our mathematical language for us to find the meaning behind it (Anne Marie Helmenstine, 2019). Another addition, to support the type of rules on classroom management, then the types of procedures on classroom management must be flexible in application. The flexibility on applying the rules that have been understandably accepted and discussed between educator and learner will become one of the key components on realizing it. In our approach for this flexibility educators and learner should know about there is no number about which one among the OMPUA Guidelines have to be done in the first hand. Similarly, with the BEDMAS rules in Mathematics learning, there is no number on which one has to proceed first. Therefore, once we meet the real-life situation then the educator and learner need to be flexible on applying the rules. An example like in mathematics, once we meet the situation of a set of numbers with a basic operation like:

10 x ( -9 + 8 + 7 x 6 + 5 x 4 x 3 ) x 2 + 1

and

10 + [ ( 9 + 8 + 7 + 6 ) * ( 5 + 4^3 – 2 ) ] + 1

Then, we can be flexible by following the BEDMAS rule on solving it, once there is a bracket then we solve the bracket first, and we move to exponent if there is, lastly we can go to basic operation, to find a result. Besides, a misidentified of rules and procedures will probably be opening to other problems too. Rules and Procedures should be addressed it clearly on the very first day (Ronald L. Partin), especially with the terms of flexibility then the line between rules and procedure that as thin as a red string should be pointing out, then to help learners realizing it will be great if an educator can keep repeating it throughout the lesson by demonstrating it, the importance of engaging in every step of the process (Jessica E. Rosevear). As another example like in mathematical learning an educator can also demonstrate the step-of-step process on where the final equation comes from, and how that equation gets a form, to avoid the misidentification between each term that happened in the teaching-learning process. Because educators keep repeating and actively supervise the procedure of applying rules throughout teaching-learning (Missouri School) with awareness about rules is not a routine (Rebecca Alber, 2017), so educator needs to know this repetition will be purposely on helping our learner to understand the material conveniently also to help educator and learner on self-development.

In conclusion, now educator can realize it on how we should design and applying the rules and introduce procedures. In order, to help educators, learners, and staff administration to have a place where every learner dares to ask a question or get a challenge in answering without a feeling of being tested (Lisa Butyness). Also, with a realization on our learner about the rules and procedures that been discussed at the beginning of the lesson is the form about trusted educators are caring on having the safe classroom for their learner on learning in which benefit learner (Wong H., Wong R., Rogers K., Brooks A.). The implementation of rules and procedures should be equally simple with support on repetition during class throughout the material that has been taught, to build the synergy positive classroom environment and application of rules without pressures, without we are forgetting about communication is the main tools on educators and learners delivering this rules and procedures.

References:

01 - Alber, R. (2017). Rules and routines in the classroom. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/rules-routines-school-year-start-classroom-management [Accessed on February 16, 2021]

02 - Baker, K., McCallum, K., McGibbon, M., Steves, N., & Zirpolo, J. (n.d.). Cooperative discipline model Linda Albert. Retrieved from https://vrogersmanagementprofile.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/8/3/13836263/linda_albert_summary_3_pages.pdf [Accessed on Feb 10, 2021]

03 - Helmenstine, A. M. (2019). Thought Co. Why Mathematics is a Language. https://www.thoughtco.com/why-mathematics-is-a-language-4158142 [Accessed on February 16, 2021]

04 - Missouri School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (2016). Content acquisition podcast: Classroom rules and expectations. Retrieved from http://pbismissouri.org/content-acquisition-podcast-classroom-rules-and-expectations/ [Accessed on Feb 16, 2021]

05 - Partin, R.L. (2009). Classroom teacher’s survival guide: Practical strategies, management techniques and reproducibles for new and experienced teachers. Published by: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

06 - Rosevear, J. E. (2009). First month: classroom rules that work. Instructor [1990], 119(1), 57. Retrieved from: https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A207360942/AONE?u=lirn17237&sid=AONE&xid=ed7b9a4f [Accessed on February 16, 2021]

07 - Wikipedia (2021, January 25). Mathematics. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics [Accessed Feb 16, 2021]

08 - Wong, H., Wong, R., Rogers, K., & Brooks, A. (2012). Managing your classroom for success: Organization in the first week is the foundation for a successful school year. Published by: Science and Children.

### 08 - Positioning Seating Arrangement in Order to Coordinating to Space of the Classroom

In this writing, there is three seating arrangement that will be chosen and discussed. The first seating arrangement in the traditional ways, this form very useful for either medium up to 20 students or large number up to 50 students with spacious classroom, but this form may not so effective for a teacher to monitoring on student activity at the far back of the classroom, also another negativity of this setting is a student at the far back row may have a difficulty to seeing the demonstration of the material that perform in the class. Another seating arrangement that seems useful will be the U-Shape or semi-circle form, with an average of a common group that is up to 25 students with medium size of rooms, in this form teacher will have an open space for having a connection to each learner equally, also to show the demonstration, but the disadvantages of this U-Shape form, if space and the classroom lighting does not support then the place, will be tight, and some learner may meet a difficulty on seeing to the permanent board placement. Lastly, in a bigger group that is up to 160 students, then seating arrangement like the stadium seating. The advantage of this stadium seating is even though the far back learner, can still see the thing happening in the front of the classroom, but the disadvantage is if the microphone does not work then the educator has to speak a bit louder, another disadvantage if the educator does not write content in a proper size then the learner far back may have difficulty on seeing or hearing the content properly. To be noted as it been mentioned by Carol Ann Tomlinson and Marcia B. Imbeau (2010) about the goal of planning the physical environment of a classroom is to maximize opportunities for teaching and learning.

As we know now, seating arrangements are practically connected with the physical space. In form of space that we measure two kinds of categories, either the volume of that space or the area of that space. As an educator we know not about the widest space that makes us comfortable, but how can we organize the space to fit with teaching-learning process. Designing a physical space environment, more like a game of international chess, how will we arrange our tokens based on that limited size of boards to create a synergy and harmony among those chess tokens, which applies to the teaching-learning process. An example like in 2015, while some educators went to visit some community college with numbers of students up to 50 numbers, then to have effective and efficient learning, they design the classroom like a stadium-concert view, by means, there is a platform for teachers to stand and sharing the knowledge, also there’s a spacious seat arrangement for each student to have a clear view and listening to it. Not only in a form of space for the seating arrangement, but in the form of organizing components on teaching-learning will be one of the considerations as well, an example like in 2017, while some educators went to visit some high school with students class up to 20, the best possible way educator do at that time by making a U-shape seating arrangement, but, because of the minimum idea of lighting, the school designer at that time did not add light to a component of the viewer, in practice the student whose seating facing the light will have difficulty to seeing the side of the board that opposing their position, to help with this situation then a dark curtain will be applied to help the student that facing light to have a clear view to the board. In conclusion to whichever form of the seating arrangement, the important will be the angle for a learner to have a clear view and clear sound on what their teacher demonstrate it on the demonstration table, projector, or the whiteboard, as Sally Ride (2012) said the stars don’t look bigger, but they look brighter in which also support by Lindsey Petlat (2015) said seating and student space is always an important factor to classroom management and student success.

In the end, to build effectiveness and efficiency of this seating arrangement, then seating arrangement designed by the physical space that exists in some certain of number. With a perception on how learner and educator can build a connection in form of teaching-learning on helping each other by delivering and accepting the material that shared, as mentioned by John Halocha (20017),” You are also enjoying the freedom to create your learning environment”. To do it the flexible seating arrangement based on some students, class components, and space that we have more likely like how we arrange each chess token on the international chessboard to have an efficient connection among one to another as the Grand Master of International Chess having it. More importantly, a smooth moving transition while learning to enter and/or leaving the classroom. Like you are switching one square to another square for the chess token on the chessboard, then in which the component like an angle for a learner to have clear air circulation, to let them breathe comfortably, and to let them have a smooth transition once the class end or once the student entered the class. To sum up, also has been mentioned by John Halocha (2007), about a basic starting point is space, heat, light, and sound, in response to that then seating arrangement and the effectiveness of using the space in a classroom can help efficiency on teaching-learning.

References:

01. Biography.com (2020). Sally Ride Biography. Retrieved from: https://www.biography.com/astronaut/sally-ride [Accessed on Feb 24, 2021]

02. Johnson, J. Halocha, J. & Charter, M. (2007). Developing Teaching Skills in the Primary School. Published by: McGraw-Hill Education.

03. Tomlinson, C.A. & Imbeau, M.B. (2010). Leading and managing a differentiated classroom. Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.

### 09 - Based on Scenario of Learner Misbehavior on p.87 Hue and Lie Book (2008) then What Strategies the New Teacher need to Choose

According to the scenario that happened in our reading on page 87 of Hue and Li’s book (2008) as we put it in our reference no. 3 on below. Then the best strategies that Ms. Chung, the teacher in the study case, can consider doing it by combining the strategies, tactics, and techniques to a discipline model call communication, that we learned in Section 01 and 02, by means not about which strategies can be better, since as we know those existing strategies that have been introduced are good and have their purposes with their advantages/disadvantage, either in how the level of effectiveness in which in some other discussion for that efficiency. But the study case about this kid hitting another kid after 10 mins of 2nd period of the class, may have been caused by something, and the better strategies that could be applied probably an approach to the student itself has been mentioned by Docking (2002) on “knowing how best to respond to unwanted behavior is among the most difficult decisions teachers have to make”. Therefore, like in this discussion study case, Ms. Chung may have to do some inappropriate action, which in the scenario has shown about Ms. Chung taking a side for Mei Sheung, by claiming about “decides to help to Mei Sheung”, this action perhaps will make student Chi Fai do more self-defense, which ended to not so good student character and personality development in Chi Fai growing process, because as a teacher we need to know about the goal of classroom management is not to control students but to prepare them to become self-disciplined (Hue Ming-tak and Li Wai-shing, 2008).

Another reason, as a teacher, especially that happened during the classroom activity, then the teacher should be in a neutral condition on taking an action, especially teacher in the class at that time has ordered all students to work in pairs, therefore a neutral condition should be the first action that Ms. Chung need to take. After all, as philosopher Parmenides (fifth century BC) ever mentioned “Nothing comes from Nothing”, therefore, to respond to the situation in the scenario, Ms. Chung need to calm both sides, and then get the opinions from both sides in order on finding the roots of the issue, then from the opinion of both students, Ms. Chung need to identify the truthiness of that situation, especially with each student character itself, in this study case is Chi Fai characters, and personality, does Chi Fai a student with a light hand as the scenario mentioned, or does Chi Fai do have some uncontrolled motoric system that needs to be aware of. Then, with all the data information that Ms. Chung has gathered about Chi Fai and Mei Cheung, Ms. Chung can formulate personal plans which reflect the realities of the classroom situations they encounter and are consistent with their personalities (Charles, 2005). Perhaps, based on the scenario, Ms. Chung as a new teacher may not aware yet, especially in the training course, in which she may learn more about classroom management, classroom syllabus, curriculum, ethic, and some other tools that are necessary with the classroom in general, but in practice, most of the time we need to be going a bit deep, like a psychiatric giving a healthy consultation with treatment than medication, and/or like a judge giving a healthy judgment based on humanity study case than textbook law, etc. After all, such plans help teachers to apply classroom management strategies constructively by providing consistent and non-arbitrary guidelines for decision-making when encountering particular kinds of misbehavior (Lasley, 1989). In conclusion, three strategies can be applied, and that would be:

1. An approach to both sides, by listening to each side's story. Also, in this study case, asking from both sides what would they want it? or how can the teacher (Ms. Chung) help? This method is action from Verbal Intervention Strategies in the section of Asking Students, which was introduced by Kerr and Nelson (2002), then Levin and Nolan (2004).

1. Asking a class opinion on what the best for Chi Fai and Mei Sheung would be, based on the case that has been healthy screening or informed to Ms. Chung in the action 01. As suggested by Pacer (2018) about support and empower the child through work together to create an action plan, focus on the child’s strengths and abilities, think through who can be involved to help.

1. Finally, Ms. Chung can get a conclusion systematically based on the rules that have been introduced in the first-class meeting, with support on Ms. Chung's teaching philosophy, the schoolwide rules, and data that Ms. Chung gathered, which will be used to communicate with Chi Fai and Mei Sheung. Of course, Chi Fai has to apologize to Mei Sheung since that physical activity has been made, then go back to both sides story on case situation that brings to this condition. After all, as we know whereas some students need encouragement, other students need a gentle reprimand, and still, others might require a not-so-gentle reprimand (Marzano, 2003).

In the end, since we are teacher, then the action to become a neutral in each condition become superbly challenging in each teacher life to live. But as a teacher, which has been mentioned by Mark and Christine Boynton (2005) in section strategies of “Relationship Strategies” about don’t be one of the kids with means it is important for you to be professional with students and to show clearly by your words and actions that, while you value and care about your students, you are in charge and must reciprocate. So, our self-system on becoming a teacher itself should always remind us on the teacher is not an encyclopedia, also the teacher is not a police or parent, but we are educators, and our main duty is to educate properly and eliminate our self-center emotions that can hurt our learner especially in their personality and character to grow.

Reference:

01. Boynton, M. & Boynton, C. (2005). Educator’s guide to preventing and solving discipline problems. Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.

02. Gallery, Peter Amby (2012). Nothing Comes from Nothing. Retrieved from: https://www.lastresortgallery.com/nothing-comes-from-nothing#:~:text=%22Ex%20nihilo%20nihil%20fit%22%20or,invitation%2C%20they%20are%20somehow%20eternal. [Accessed on March 3, 2021]

03. Hue, M., & Li, W. (2008). Classroom management: Creating a positive learning environment. Hong Kong University Press.

04. Pacer (2018). Ways to be there as an adult- Episode 17. Retrieved from http://www.pacer.org/bullying/video/player.asp?video=113 [Accessed on March 2, 2021]

05. Samonski, Mike. Parmenides Dialogues: Parmenides vs Socrates. Retrieved from: http://parmenides.me/parmenides-dialogue-parmenides-vs-socrates/ [Accessed on March 3, 2021]

06. Wikipedia (2021). Parmenides. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parmenides [Accessed on March 3, 2021]

### 10 - Is There a Methods/Models of Classroom Management for Preventing Student Misbehavior?

Discussing the methods/models for preventing student misbehavior in this time, I will use a short illustration as an analogy from the international chess game with application to minimizing misbehaviors during my experienced in teaching-learning. In short, as we thought we know about the international chess game, then, most of the professional international chess game player that has been called as Grand Master of International Chess, may know into a realization about there is a form of strategies in such models that can be used to positioning each of chess token on the board, which later called as an opening or middlegame or endgame, but we do know there’s no such a method we can use in the international chess by any kind of players to always winning the game without any loses in each of the player records, also we do know each strategy involves a commonsense approach that most teachers are well aware of but sometimes forget to emphasize (Mark & Christine Boynton, 2015). With that simple illustration in mind, we should know now, even though the classroom is not a chessboard, and the teaching-learning is not an international chess game, but the analogy as the hidden practical philosophy from the international chess game can be applied neither in the teaching-learning process and/or in the form of structuring the application to such a form in which teaching-learning can indirectly support on minimizing the misbehaviors on the study to be more efficient and effective as how the international chess game has shown us, even though it may have a tiny bit of misbehavior in practice. Furthermore, to minimize this misbehavior in such a form especially in teaching-learning, the educator and learner should know the components and/or the sampling of misbehaviors, so they won’t repeat. Misbehavior’ that can happen not only in the physical form called bullying or cheating, also misbehavior in the intellectual form called plagiarism. The misbehavior to the knowledge may need more than just a shred of evidence to be proven, unlike, in physical bullying, we can identify it easily by recognizing the thing that we can see or hear. Because, as an educator, we know about neither form of this misbehavior’ that happened always interrupting the teaching-learning process in such away. Moreover, this reflection has been made for me to understand the roots of this misbehavior and the reaction of the practitioner of teaching-learning in education for minimizing student misbehavior.

However, as much as we know about the international chess game then this also brings us to as many as we don’t know what the proper term should be used instead of we do know what the common term that been used in the international chess game. This illustration also gives us an analogy that in Education as much as our learners know about the purpose of coming to school for study, but not as many as our educational practitioner, that I called, know about the proper purpose of education itself, except the teaching in a form of teacher to teach subject to the student, and managing in a form teacher teach, administration staff work to monitor teacher. Because of that unclear situations, these misbehaviors exist in the school community due to the misunderstanding between parties that existed in the educational institute. Perhaps more study of this illustration can be more developed in the study of Philosophy of Education as each of us the practitioner of education that is working in any form at the educational institutions need to know it for the administration staff to develop the effectively practical and efficiently useful schoolwide rules. Also, in this practice as the educator that got involved directly with the students, called teacher, need to be more understanding on his/her teaching philosophy that ideally connecting with his/her classroom rules, which can be shown and reminded to students either in purposely or purposely during the teaching-learning. But, for now, we will not develop more this paragraph till my further article on Educational Philosophy itself and Learning Theory.

Therefore, with the current topic, we know known our temporary chess tokens and chess component to form our methods/models on creating a plan as we are predicting our token movement in the chessboard before the game begins, which to minimizing this misbehavior as we try to minimize our blunder movement in the international chess game. Those chess tokens and chess components which we currently have, up to this point, from our reading since section 01 up to now, should not be different from others teacher, but as a practitioner, we make it different in our way on applying it, like the chess player applying their plan to the chess token on the chessboard. More example of those tokens like each teacher has their own choice of a crucial component to building positive classroom management as we have in our article from Section 01, which in my case, I have chosen for Time in form of schedule, Space in form of classroom design, and Wave in form of communication, in which are a crucial token in process of teaching-learning, that taken from seven key elements for effective classroom management by Silvia Cini (2017), especially with the high schooler students. If Section 01 on this topic is the chess token, then Section 02 is a chess component in form of methods that we want to apply as a practitioner of education, in the model of discipline as we describe it in our article from Section 02 of this topic, which to build the positive classroom management, on my writing, I decided to have a creative discipline model, and of course, this component only can be effectively efficient with a support component by Section 03 on our classroom Rules and Procedure to help our classroom being in the track, especially during teaching-learning, as a result in Section 05 of our References, we know it now there are an options to which strategies that good to be applied since each strategy involves a commonsense approach that most teachers are well aware of but sometimes forget to emphasize (Mark & Christine Boynton, 2005). Also, the other easily non-recognize component from the use of physical space to giving comfort and friendly educative positive classroom management get reminded by Section 04 on efficiency and effectiveness to physical space to help the teaching-learning process. Now, in which I don’t know which section will be in this article, we need the last fundamental support component, which is the wave, in terms of communication, the way of us to communicate the rules, and procedures to help our students understandably and willing to do it with their nature also to not let them fall into a temptation trap of misbehavior. The form of communication plays an important indirect role, like in international chess, how will we build a synergy connection between one token to another token, in order each token get protected in any possible way. In education, how will we have spoken out loud the important term, should we use a lieutenant intonation of command to introduce the important term, or should we use a calm mother intonation of command to introduce the important term.

Now, each method/model that existed unto preventing or minimizing student misbehavior mostly related to us as a teacher and our strategy on keep communicate it without keeping mentioned with the student regarding their misbehavior. Throughout ordering may work to some kind of students but will be better to give a challenging student with an option, has been stated by Haim Ginott (2012) on teacher can being strict once it comes to undesirable behavior, and teacher can be permissive once it comes to desires or feelings and wishes. This led to me back in 2007, the first year of me to become a legal teacher, a school has put me in surely challenging classes, with each individual surely unique in their ways and personality like the chess tokens, especially like the Bishop Token on the chessboard, even though look similar but they are in their line with no possibility to change their color. Then the methods that I came up with is the trial-and-error models that I have used in 2007, with a total of 10 students, after the method that has Pacer (2018) stated as Listen-Talk-Support, this takes me nearly eleven days at that time for figuring out each root of the student’s misbehavior that lead me to enable another model for helping them back into track of learning, and of course this with support of education tokens and component, that I applied at that time, one of those components like becoming a rule and procedure that I have shared in my Section 06 of this article.

Like in the international chess game, in each game we have different methods and models that we want to try to find an effectively efficient way of our game. Then, form the changeable methods/models of classroom management that can be useful to prevent in such of minimizing student misbehavior, in my personal experience, this answer will be based on the pattern that looks similarly applicable in theory. Those strategies in no particular order, are:

1. Based on Green, Mays, and Jolivette (2011) called as “Choice Making: by allowing student preference” which support by Martin (2003) as stated “Goal Setting: Get a Commitment”, to get a student back on a task which decreases misbehavior (Sutherland, Alder, & Gunther, 2003) in terms of giving such a motivation throughout an opportunity to choose how student want to carry out their learning and measurable outcome of their goal. Like we see it now in Student-Center Based Learning.

2. Based on Monitoring Strategies from Mark and Christine Boynton (2015), in which the Three “Make or Break” Times in terms of a teacher should do everything possible to create and maintain a structured and orderly environment by being a teacher during the class time and being something else that can be respected after the class time, an example like a brother/sister for them. Like we see it now in Research-Based Learning.

3. The use of Logical consequences as stated by Hue Ming-tak and Li Wai-shing (2008), which teachers should distinguish natural, logical, and arbitrary consequences and not confuse them with punishment. In terms of not letting learners feel pressure with the consequences and make learner realize on catching up the missing classes on behave of their initiative like in the Project-Based Learning, but this situation based on student thought on catching up.

An example like while I am in China the misbehavior is more like the action of sharing their answers in regards to having a good grade in whatever way they tried to do, or like sharing their homework answer before graded in order of their culture to help each other and not to be too proud. On the other hand, like in Indonesia, misbehavior classes exist because the students practically like to give an intuitive question to the topic they are learning, they need a model on real-life application from what they learned can be useful in some ways. Therefore, according to our reading assignment, the first method I will choose from the model from Wolfgang & Glickman (1986), which also mentioned in Mark & Christine Boynton (2005) the method of approach is the Relationship Strategies to help us, educators on knowing about the roots of the issues like what makes the students behave in the misbehavior form. Then lastly based on the monitoring strategies idea by Mark and Christine Boynton (2015), I can use a method categorized by Bear (1995) about the treatment models in a form of therapy if needed.

In the end, in our reading assignment, we know it knows about a reason behind so many variants from of strategies that deriving from the models that have been discovered throughout research in quantitative and qualitative from the topic of psychology to the application in education. Because there are different views on misbehaviors, especially on minimalizing and preventing the misbehavior in each location, then the best method/model will be a synergy and a harmony between the learner, and educational practitioner to the track of learning. After all, like Linda Albert ever stated, “Students won’t always remember what we teach them, but they will never forget how we treat them”.

References:

01. Baker, K., McCallum, K., McGibbon, M., Steves, N., & Zirpolo, J. (n.d.). Cooperative discipline model Linda Albert. Retrieved from https://vrogersmanagementprofile.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/8/3/13836263/linda_albert_summary_3_pages.pdf

02. Bear, G. G. (in press). Developing self-discipline and preventing and correcting misbehavior. Published by: Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

03. Boynton, M. & Boynton, C. (2005). Educator’s guide to preventing and solving discipline problems. Published by: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.

04. Cini, S. (2017). Seven Key Elements for Effective Classroom Management.

05. Ginott, Haim. posted September 17, 2012. Haim Ginott 7: Ginott talks about communicating with children. YouTube. [Video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/sMo80A_AAEw [Accessed on March 4, 2021]

06. Hue, M., & Li, W. (2008). Classroom management: Creating a positive learning environment. Published by: Hong Kong University Press.

07. Pacer (2018). Ways to be there as an adult- Episode 17. Retrieved from: http://www.pacer.org/bullying/video/player.asp?video=113

08. Wright, Jim (2015). Effective Behavioral Intervention. Retrieved from: https://www.interventioncentral.org/sites/default/files/workshop_files/allfiles/ABA_5_Antecedent_Strategies.pdf [Accessed on March 4, 2021]

### 11 - General Strategies That Can be Applied to Facilitate Student's Learning

A key to implementing high expectations in your classroom is to realize that “high expectations” is in fact something most teachers do, and not just believe (Hill, n.d.). Also, we found that what we believe is good for students might hinder students’ independence and weaken their ability to think. An example like in ancient schools methods of teaching, students asked to memorize everything regardless they do understand or do not, also with a hope the more thing for students to memorizing, then the more the thing the students can do the questions and hopefully to “succeed” in such terms and condition, therefore in that methods students will be stuffed with an amount of subject without an actually knowing on how to implement it because they do not understand what they have learned, except solving the question paper and meaningless grade, that giving them temporary happiness.

Nowadays, to find a better way of setting high expectations for students, we would like our students to be skillful and get acknowledgment in Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics especially on their Critical Thinking, Analyzing, and Reliable Problem Solving, which is even though we know that won’t be an easy task and this could become a long term project that could happen with proper management and organizations. Therefore, if the skills and knowledge do not guarantee the best understanding, especially during the progress of people to gain skills and knowledge from nature, and reusing it again with good purposes in human daily life, then what would be the teaching process aim that can activate the holistic on effectiveness and efficiency to students that can put their learning and education to work.

With those two introduction paragraphs in this article, we would like to share some strategies that could be used in order to boost their focus on the learning within the work and the understanding among the knowledge and their concepts, which are:

1. Differentiate “Learning” from “Work”

The notion of work itself, historically speaking, is derived from the image of labor, which is passive and obligatory. Therefore, the activity called "work" cannot be separated from such a concept. Let me take an English class as an example. For example, copying English words over and over in a notebook is "work" or students are just "training their hand”. That is not learning. If they just memorize a passage in the textbook, no active learning occurs. Learning occurs when students think, create, and discover. They all come out from students, not assigned by the teacher.

2. Make learning a long-term research-thinking-centered process

“Teaching is less about what the teacher does than about what the teacher gets the students to do” (Perkins, D., Teaching for Understanding, p.8). A teacher needs to put a clear plan for all the possible concepts that had been studied during the whole year and assure that all students know each concept and are able to apply it in routine life, which can help students to be more engaged overtime on a variety of understanding different kinds of topics, “Such a long term, the thinking-centered process seems central to building student’s understanding” (Theodore, S., 1948). Also, it does not matter if we are high school teachers or kindergarten teachers, this strategy will help us to be more responsible about our student choices to become independent learners. Using this strategy will also help students to gain more knowledge and finding the link in terms of connection with the other topics that they learned.

3. Design lesson that homework as an optional

As Ms. Karen whom Ritchhart introduced in his book, some teachers too much focus on homework. In many cases, they are well-organized, they keep track of students’ participation and work very precisely. In work-oriented classrooms, teachers “monitor the work,” making sure everyone is on task and getting things done (Ritchhart, 2015). What we need to focus on is not whether the students are able to complete the assigned tasks, but whether they are experiencing learning on their own.

4. Provide clear assessment

It has been emphasized that students and teacher need feedback in some possible way that educator has to choose. The form of this possible feedback could be like an assigned task, or by doing some homework either by individual work or as group work, those work purposes to help teachers to know where their students are in their learning process as they need an opportunity to reflect their understanding at beginning of the year rather than at the end of the term, as Baron said in 1991, “To learn effectively, students need criteria, feedback, and opportunities for reflection from the beginning of any sequence of instruction”. In order to do so, then many reasonable approaches tools that could be used, like a pop quiz in which will help the teacher to know each student level, or homework which will give student a chance on revising and perhaps a bit of background for the next day discussion in which will be allowing student on sharing their point of views, as like been mentioned by Bloom, Madaus, & Hastings, 1981, also Stiggins, 2002 about, ”Teachers facilitate learning by providing students with important feedback on their learning progress and by helping them identify learning problems”, in order their assessment can be considered as the main source that can give an accurate reflection of concept and skills from what they learned.

5. Don’t make a judgment on how we evaluate students

If we want to create a better way of our teaching, then we can design the way we assess students. For example, once we want to evaluate student’s "work", then we can evaluate their homework submissions. On the other hand, we could evaluate how many pages of English vocabulary they have written in their notebooks, or how many words they have memorized if the class is the English Language. However, if we want to assess "learning," we need to assess the student's performance. How they express themselves using the words they have learned, how they present themselves on a given topic, and so on.

6. We teach for sharing our knowledge

Recent studies show that majority of students do not carry or learn the knowledge that we shared, and most of the students learned in one context to another, and yet some of them fail to use mathematics facts during physics sessions or fail in applying English proper content in writing scientific reports. Therefore, for a better sharing knowledge among teacher and students, the best methods will show them an example on how each topic are connected, and give the student a guideline for implementing by using some diversity of knowledge in a different situation, has been mentioned by Perkins, D. on p.20 of Teaching for Understanding, “Teachers teaching for a full and rich understanding need to include understanding performances that reach well beyond the obvious and conventional boundaries of the topic.”

7. Never accept excuses with the purpose of deep learning

Never Accept Excuses is one of the best strategies, not only giving positive training on how to be disciplined, but also one of the passive strategies on applying the rules. Also, once we as a teacher permitting excuses then other excuses will come forward with it, even though some excuses may not so excuses. To help our students for avoiding the excuses, then during the class we try to build an environment that won’t bore them, especially if the class is in the very first in the morning, or in the very last in the day. To build such an environment, this is the 2nd strategy that can be applied indirectly by giving them a deep learning continuity, in form of education that can show them a purpose of the topic, not just a theoretical but also in the practical. An example, like in each of my sessions on high school teaching class, after I spent nearly 10 minutes introducing the topic, then I will try to let my students on doing some applications or questions for 15 minutes to let them know about it’s safe to make incorrectness (Tiffany Youtchoko, 2019), and lastly from what they listen in the beginning and they try in the session of application, now we do the demonstration on what’s they are calculating and they are measuring are practicable, with that, hopefully, the student not only has their enthusiasm on the topic keep up, also they could binding it to some other subject they learn during their study in the high school.

Among that the most important thing is to change the mindset of teachers. In terms, perhaps their students have very little time for learning. If all homework has become work, then it can be a little creative, for example instead of just writing words, students can write sentences using that word. With that, we hope learning will occur and it will be more fun. Meanwhile, if the tests are creative instead of memorizing knowledge, then students may look forward to the tests and actively participate in the class.

In the end, either strategy will only work on positive classroom management in terms of how we communicated them to our students. An example like Larry Bell has shown us in the story on how Larry giving a choice on support reasoning instead of just being angry to the students whose not doing the homework. Another example also like Alex Spiegel (2012) shown through Robert Pianta has shown even though for a purpose of never accepting excuses, and only the way on how we deliver the message in terms of communication that can be useful to support it. Therefore without a proper way to communicate then we won’t be able to deliver the message properly, even though sometimes military ways may work but not as effective as mother ways of delivering the message.

References:

1. Bell, L. (2007). Creating a culture of high expectations for all students. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/columnists/bell/bell003.shtml

2. Hill, J. (n.d.). The power of high expectations: Closing the gap in your classroom. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20160413075718/http://teachingasleadership.org/sites/default/files/Related-Readings/DCA_Ch2_2011.pdf

3. Ritchhart, R. (2015). Creating cultures of thinking: The 8 forces we must master to truly transform our schools. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

4. Spiegel, A. (2012). Teacher’s expectations can influence how students perform. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2012/09/18/161159263/teachers-expectations-can-influence-how-students-perform [Accessed on March 09, 2021]

5. Youtchoko, T. (2019). 7 Powerful Tips for Creating a Culture of Learning in the Classroom. Retrieved from: http://www.ingredientsofoutliers.com/7-powerful-tips-for-creating-a-culture-of-learning-in-the-classroom/ [Accessed on March 11, 2021]

### 12 - What Bring You to Become a Teacher

In this section, I will do my best to share as clear as possible with as short as possible on the purpose of being a teacher. The purpose of my early teaching was to just be sharing some knowledge in some way therefore I could help the new generation in finding what is fun on pursuing what students love it. Like how I successfully study Physics at the University, and with that achievement, then I brought the concept and idea of learning Physics through Mathematics to the school, which in each of my 2007 classes, I always introduce the practical event of Mathematical equation in Physics form, has this becomes a study of Physics? The answer to this is No, because Mathematics is the base language of Physics, and Mathematics is not Physics, but they do help each other (Richard P. Feynmann). Another reason that makes me as a teacher which is coming through after a year and still updating with hope to the best is to become a light and a salt, which interpret by me, to be light terms is to share about our brightness with as many candelas as we can do for those learners who still hiding or trying to escape from the Darkness of Confusion, and to give the incredible taste of life, which most of the people like to ignore the salt in the ocean, by the fact is none candy has a salt taste, and none of the ice creams has the salt taste either but looks the other side, none of the mother or anyone who knows how to make the food, will not add the salt as one of their ingredients, the question is why they add salt in their food? Because salt truly gives the taste become completed. Without the salt, the world will have no ocean, the seafood will have the taste like a ground animal, and those who we are, as a Teacher let’s bring the light and the salt for future human generation, also has been said by Reid Whittaker (Houston, 2002) "taking on every probable challenge and dilemma that comes with the task of being a teacher is not necessarily proactive, rather providing all your students with the concrete real-life experiences and high expectations for learning are the essential keys for creating an environment where anything is possible".

To accomplish my purpose of teaching, then one thing I know is I should believe each student have their own talents and ability, and like Albert Einstein famous quoted, “if we judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree on the ground, then it will live its whole life believing that it’s stupid.” Therefore, it’s my duty as a teacher to giving them guidance as wise as possible in order to help them find their true ability of humanity among those majors they learned in school. Even though, sometimes it’s quite challenging especially with a student that has been afraid in the first place of the trial and error for even try to listen to the Mathematics class, due to the experienced student who has faced with the previous teacher. However, to support this condition, I should be able to bring fun into the classroom, that can become an idea that they can be accepted about these Mathematics learning in fact is not scary at all, with a note from Larry Bell (2007) that we start early in the school year building that relationship, but never accept excuses. Then, with the initiate interaction or responses from the process of learning, and I know at that time about the process has reached the first step, as mentioned by Julie P. Sanford (1984) about effective teachers had procedures that governed students with regard to talking, participation in oral lessons and discussion. This indicates good access for a restart with the rules and behavior that can be accepted without strictly mentioned, which based on Kounin (1970) about it is what the teacher does that produces high student engagement, reduces student misbehavior, and maximizes instructional time. Even though, I expect each student to be capable of having commitment on what do they believe they want to pursue with a responsibility. After all, it’s our responsibility as a teacher to not only teach about the subject, but to help our students, especially in the high school on the process to find their passion, by simple directions and were noted as excellent in structuring transitions like been mentioned by Wong, H., Wong, R., Rogers, K., & Brooks, A. (2012). Therefore, once they graduate from the university they could work as they are passionate, as Linda Albert mentioned “Students won’t always remember what we teach them, but they will never forget how we treat them”.

In the end, if the school has Parent Teacher Meeting in general, then I do expect my student’s parents to possibly trust their kids on making a choice of what they would like to pursue, instead of injecting their idea to let their kids choose on. Because of indirect practical trust by letting their kids on making a choice on which major they should study, or they want to study, this already given an opportunity for the children to grow up on their process of learning and for their life to live. I truly believed each child can achieve their dreams, especially with the proper guide and thought during their learning in each time, not only from primary to university, but their learning in progress during their life live, then each child is learners that being an educator that educated each self and people around on becoming the best in their field of life to live, because like Rebecca Alber (2017) mentioned when a teacher is effective, the majority of kids are learning and getting what they need, goals and objectives are achieved.

Reference:

01. Alber, R. (2017). Rules and routines in the classroom. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/rules-routines-school-year-start-classroom-management

02. Baker, K., McCallum, K., McGibbon, M., Steves, N., & Zirpolo, J. (n.d.). Cooperative discipline model Linda Albert. Retrieved from https://vrogersmanagementprofile.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/8/3/13836263/linda_albert_summary_3_pages.pdf

03. Bell, L. (2007). Creating a culture of high expectations for all students. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/columnists/bell/bell003.shtml

04. Hill, J. (n.d.). The power of high expectations: Closing the gap in your classroom. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20160413075718/http://teachingasleadership.org/sites/default/files/Related-Readings/DCA_Ch2_2011.pdf

05. Wong, H., Wong, R., Rogers, K., & Brooks, A. (2012). Managing your classroom for success: Organization in the first week is the foundation for a successful school year. Science and Children, 49 (9), 60+.

### 13 - Encouraging Deep Learning vs Surface Learning Strategies

It’s truly hard to separate the content of deep learning without an understanding and knowledge. Since knowledge and understanding are only different by one string of red lines, that if we can be crossing it, then the concept of understanding beyond that knowledge will be miraculously insightful as we called it deep in this case or wisdom in some other cases. In many cases that we have seen knowledge without practical application is meaningless, like Richard P. Feynman ever stated, “it doesn’t matter how beautiful your theory is, it doesn’t matter how smart you are, if it doesn’t agree with experiment, it’s wrong.” Therefore, to have not only a proper understanding of the knowledge that we are learning, but we also need to help our learners in this case on some practices that can be attached unconsciously to their mind of thinking. Especially for their higher education later on in the universities and their life to live. Furthermore, if learners learn knowledge without practically understanding, learners won’t truly remember it. Teaching and guiding learners without educating them a lesson properly makes it likely that education is not so helpful as it has to be in the first place. It would be better to help them on deeply understanding by guiding them on their goals.

Another reason, encouraging deep learning than surface learning with purpose Learners can apply their understanding as their own choice to the options that have been given. For one thing, learners may have trouble applying it properly to another subject, as the connection may not be pointing clearly. But as been mentioned by Ron Ritchhart (2015), “The focus of that learning is on the development of understanding”, then this could become a challenge in learner progress as one of the tests that learner needs to find the connections to prove on their understanding behind the pieces of knowledge that has been memorizing or introducing. Deep learning than surface learning also applies in almost all current international curriculums. Like in IB, there’s a need of writing their thoughts and opinion such in Theory of Knowledge (TOK), also happened currently like in AP, there’s AP Seminar, which students need to do presentation and writing of their choices. Also, deep learning than surface learning will bring learners to a brighter view of their choice in applying this knowledge they have gained to a proper understanding throughout their learning. Learners will not only know about their subject material, and the learner will see themselves as a successful learner, inform he or she may have a brighter view on choosing which field learner want to do further development or involvement, and importantly not feel regret to choose such a special major in the university. It is not worth giving surface learning without deep learning ideas on the learner to fill their hungry on learning, as been state by Ron Ritchhart (2015), “It's true realization will depend on the rigorous adoption of deep learning strategies as the norm rather than the exception in classrooms”.

Finally, the seriousness of deep learning than surface learning is not the same in all cultures. Americans value detailed processes and proper answers. Learners are taught from a very young age to provide a process and detail of their work. Even though some Americans still do plug-and-play. But that’s not even what makes most Americans ignore the process and details because as Shagar Khillar (2020) concludes about “Deep learners are intrinsically motivated and determined to use higher-order cognitive skills to master academic content”. On the other hand, not all educators share this attitude about deep learning and surface learning. In China Mainland, for example, most schools just concern about their good grade with their teacher's limited time. It’s common for learners in China Mainland learner been taught by past papers repeatedly, as one of the methods of surface learning, and hopefully, there’s a similar question and answer in the current exam, which is surely good for passing the exam, but a minimum of an idea in application and understanding. Therefore, it’s not far to introduce deep learning than surface learning from each educator. Most educators may not realize the value of deep learning than surface learning, except filling their duty as the school asks them. But the University will be taught differently from surface learning to deep learning and then how we will use all of that information to some examples that are surely measurable, observable, practicable. Because there are different views on learning, learners should not become an object on achieving the educational institute goal that’s not helpful to education and learner’s achievement.

Reference:

01. Ritchhart, R. (2015). Creating cultures of thinking: The 8 forces we must master to truly transform our schools. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

02. Khillar, S. (2020). Difference between deep learning and surface learning. Retrieved from: http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-deep-learning-and-surface-learning/ [Accessed on Mar 11, 2021]